Alexandrite is created from the mineral Chryoberyl, which is extremely rare. Other properties that Alexandrite include are Chromium. Chromium plays an important part giving the Alexandrite two colors that change the stones color depending on the light source. For instance, in direct sunlight, other elements inside the Chryoberyl such as copper can make the stone look green. However take the stone inside and place it under one small light source such as a candle or light bulb and the stone will change color completely, appearing red.
The origin and history of Alexandrite is very unique. Alexandrite is the name of the most precious and rare mineral Chryoberyl. Alexandrite is steeped in folklore, it is said that Alexandrite was first discovered on the birthday of Alexander the II, the Czar of Russia in 1830.
It was found in the Ural Mountains of Russia and because of the original stone found displayed two important colors, that being the colors of red and green. These are the same Imperial colors of Russia at the time thus lending credence to the folklore.
Because of the popularity, beauty and importance of Alexandrite, the major reserves of Alexandrite have all but disappeared from the Russia area where they where most commonly found. However, in the last 20 years a huge reserve of Alexandrite has been found in Minas Gerias, Brazil and another large reserve was founded only 6 years after that by the border of Mozambique and Tanzania. If you are looking for a truly unique gemstone that has the ability to change colors depending on the light source, you should definitely look into Alexandrite.